The opener contributed 243 of India’s 493 for six, leaving the hosts with a mammoth lead of 343 after they bowled out Bangladesh for 150 on Thursday.
Agarwal, who had been dropped by Imrul Kayes when he had scored just 32, has now hit two double hundreds in his first 12 Test innings, taking him past Don Bradman in the record books, with only former India batsman Vinod Kambli having managed the feat faster.
Virat Kohli was trapped lbw by Abu Jayed for a duck but Agarwal was ably supported by Cheteshwar Pujara, Ajinkya Rahane and Ravindra Jadeja.
KOHLI: Go for 2⃣0⃣0⃣
AGARWAL: Aye Aye, Captain! 👍
— Hotstar US (@Hotstarusa) November 15, 2019
Pujara went for 54 early in the day but Rahane put on 190 with Agarwal before falling for 86 and Jadeja finished the day unbeaten on 60.
Follow the rest of the Test via our live scorecard.
The first Test between England and the West Indies takes place on Wednesday at the Ageas Bowl.
Sibley made a strong impression during his first winter as an international cricketer.
The BBC will screen highlights at the end of each day’s play of England’s Test series with the West Indies.
England batsman Zak Crawley has backed “big leader” Ben Stokes to be a successful captain in their Test match against the West Indies.
Former England batsman Ian Bell has said the prospect of retirement is not on his mind after extending his contract at Warwickshire.
Vaughan was hampered by a knee injury.
England’s top four will likely have just 39 caps between them.
Dan Lawrence has emerged as a contender.
Captain Joe Root is absent due to the impending birth of his second child.